TED演讲 | 如何让我们的身体像金刚狼一样更快痊愈?

TED演讲 | 如何让我们的身体像金刚狼一样更快痊愈?

hello大家好,我是达达。如果我们的身体可以更快地愈合并且没有伤疤,例如像X战警中的金刚狼那么会怎么样?TED研究员Kaitlyn Sadtler正致力于通过开发新的生物材料来实现这一梦想,这些生物材料可以改变我们的免疫系统对受伤的反应。在这个简短的演讲中,她也展示了这些产品可以帮助身体再生的不同方式。

演讲者:Kaitlyn Sadtle 演讲题目:How we could teach our bodies to heal faster? 如何像金刚狼般更快痊愈 来自TED英语演说优选 00:00 05:01

中英文对照翻译

What if you could take a pill or a vaccine and, just like getting over a cold, you could heal your wounds faster? Today, if we have an operation or an accident, we're in the hospital for weeks, and often left with scars and painful side effects of our inability to regenerate or regrow healthy, uninjured organs. 如果你吃颗药或者是打一针,就能让身上的伤口更快痊愈,就像治好了感冒那样,听起来如何?今天,如果我们要做个手术,或出了事故,通常要在医院里住上几个星期,而且经常留下疤痕,还要忍受痛苦的副作用,因为我们的身体无法再生健康的,完好无损的器官。

I work to create materials that instruct our immune system to give us the signals to grow new tissues. Just like vaccines instruct our body to fight disease, we could instead instruct our immune system to build tissues and more quickly heal wounds.我的工作是创造不同的材料来指导我们的免疫系统,向身体传达信号,生长出新的组织。就像疫苗能指导我们的身体对抗疾病一样,我们也可以指导自身的免疫系统去生成组织,更快地治愈伤口。  Now, regrowing body parts out of nowhere might seem like magic, but there are several organisms that can achieve this feat. Some lizards can regrow their tails, the humble salamander can completely regenerate their arm, and even us mere humans can regrow our liver after losing more than half of its original mass.  凭空再生出身体器官看起来似乎很神奇,但实际上,有许多生物都可以做到这点。有些蜥蜴能重新长出尾巴,小小的蝾螈可以完全再生它们的手臂,甚至我们人类也可以在失去超过一半的肝脏后,自行复原。  To make this magic a bit closer to reality, I'm investigating how our body can heal wounds and build tissue through instructions from the immune system. From a scrape on your knee to that annoying sinus infection, our immune system defends our body from danger. 为了让这个魔术般的技能更现实,我正在研究我们的身体如何通过免疫系统的指令来治愈伤口和构建组织。从膝盖的擦伤到恼人的鼻窦感染,免疫系统保护我们的身体免遭危险。

I'm an immunologist, and by using what I know about our body's defense system, I was able to identify key players in our fight to build back our cuts and bruises.我是一名免疫学家,通过运用我对自身防御系统的了解,我能够识别出身体在对抗伤口和瘀伤时,扮演着关键角色的成员。  When looking at materials that are currently being tested for their abilities to help regrow muscle, our team noticed that after treating an injured muscle with these materials, there was a large number of immune cells in that material and the surrounding muscle. 在观察测试中的帮助肌肉再生能力的材料时,我们的团队注意到,用这些材料处理受伤的肌肉后,在这些材料及其周围的肌肉中出现了大量的免疫细胞。

So in this case, instead of the immune cells rushing off towards infection to fight bacteria, they're rushing toward an injury. I discovered a specific type of immune cell, the helper T cell, was present inside that material that I implanted and absolutely critical for wound healing.所以在这种情况下,免疫细胞并没有冲向感染处去对抗细菌,而是聚集在了伤口处。我发现了一种特殊类型的免疫细胞,辅助T细胞,存在于我植入的材料中,并且对伤口愈合至关重要。  Now, just like when you were a kid and you'd break your pencil and try and tape it back together again, we can heal, but it might not be in the most functional way, and we'll get a scar. 就跟你还是孩子时会弄断铅笔,然后试着把它重新粘在一起一样。我们的伤口可以自行愈合,但可能不是以最有效的方式进行,于是就会留下疤痕。

So if we don't have these helper T cells, instead of healthy muscle, our muscle develops fat cells inside of it, and if there's fat in our muscle, it isn't as strong. Now, using our immune system, our body could grow back without these scars and look like what it was before we were even injured.如果我们没有这些辅助T细胞,肌肉会在伤口里生成脂肪细胞,而不是健康的肌肉。而如果我们的肌肉里有脂肪,它就不那么强壮了。而利用免疫系统,我们的身体可以在不产生疤痕的情况下恢复,并且看起来就像未受伤时一样。  I'm working to create materials that give us the signals to build new tissue by changing the immune response. We know that any time a material is implanted in our body, the immune system will respond to it. This ranges from pacemakers to insulin pumps to the materials that engineers are using to try and build new tissue. 我正在努力创造一种材料,通过改变免疫反应来产生信号,让我们的身体去再生新的组织。我们知道,任何时候一种物质被植入我们的身体,免疫系统就会对此做出反应。这涵盖了从心脏起搏器到胰岛素泵,再到工程师们用来尝试构建新组织的材料。

So when I place that material, or scaffold, in the body, the immune system creates a small environment of cells and proteins that can change the way that our stem cells behave. Now, just like the weather affects our daily activities, like going for a run or staying inside and binge-watching an entire TV show on Netflix, the immune environment of a scaffold affects the way that our stem cells grow and develop.所以当我把那种材料,或者支架,放入体内时,免疫系统就会创造一个由细胞和蛋白质组成的小环境,它可以改变我们干细胞的行为方式。就像天气会影响我们的日常活动一样,比如出去跑步还是呆在家里,在Netflix(付费视频网站)上看一整套电视节目,支架的免疫环境也会影响我们干细胞生长发育的方式。  If we have the wrong signals, say the Netflix signals, we get fat cells instead of muscle. These scaffolds are made of a variety of different things, from plastics to naturally derived materials, nanofibers of varying thicknesses, sponges that are more or less porous, gels of different stiffnesses. And researchers can even make the materials release different signals over time. 如果我们有错误的信号,比如Netflix的信号,我们就会得到脂肪细胞,而不是肌肉。这些支架由各种不同的材料制成,从塑料到天然材料,不同厚度的纳米纤维,多孔或少孔的海绵结构,不同硬度的凝胶。研究人员甚至可以让这些材料随时间释放不同的信号。

So in other words, we can orchestrate this Broadway show of cells by giving them the correct stage, cues and props that can be changed for different tissues, just like a producer would change the set for 'Les Mis' versus 'Little Shop of Horrors.' I'm combining specific types of signals that mimic how our body responds to injury to help us regenerate. In the future, we could see a scar-proof band-aid, a moldable muscle filler or even a wound-healing vaccine.换句话说,我们可以通过给细胞们正确的舞台,线索和道具来编排细胞的百老汇表演,这些道具可以为不同的组织做出改变,就像制片人会为分别为《悲惨世界》和《恐怖小店》设计不同的布景一样。我会结合一些特定类型的信号,来模拟我们身体对损伤的反应 来帮助我们再生。在未来,我们可以看到一种防疤痕创可贴,一种可塑形的肌肉填充物,甚至一种帮助伤口愈合疫苗。  Now, we aren't going to wake up tomorrow and be able to heal like Wolverine. Probably not next Tuesday, either. But with these advances, and working with our immune system to help build tissue and heal wounds, we could begin seeing products on the market that work with our body's defense system to help us regenerate, and maybe one day be able to keep pace with a salamander.现在,我们还无法做到明早醒来便能像金刚狼那样痊愈。估计再过一周也不会。但随着这些进步,结合我们的免疫系统在构建组织和愈合伤口上的帮助,我们会开始看到市场上的一些产品,可以与我们身体的防御系统协作,帮助我们再生,也许有一天,我们能够跟上蝾螈的步伐。  Thank you.谢谢你们。

Remark:视频、演讲稿均来源于TED官网

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