《容安馆札记》746-747则

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七四六

顧璘《顧華玉集》金陵叢書本。東橋與李、何並世,頗有交誼,所作詩亦七子體之弛隳者。而文則誦說韓、柳,舍卷十五《王履吉集序》一首,皆不為澀古,異乎李、何之撰。學則出入宋儒,較李、何更明著。參觀第七百則論《薛考功集》、帝七百六則論《何大復集》、帝七百九則論《鄭少谷集》。

〇卷三《柬陳宋卿》:“頗怪陳無己,尋詩日閉門。”按東橋詩中數用唐、宋事,如卷七《陸浚明再遊金陵》云:“李白綺裘人競看,謝安歌扇客重開”;《寄蔡九逵》云:“未見江湖徵李泌,每勞卿相問王通”;《送陳九臯還山陰》云:“摩詰風流兼善畫,嵇康豪宕本忘機”;卷二十三《送盛箴》云:“博學蘇明允,多才盛孝章”;卷二十四《答徐昌穀博士》云:“舊愛張廷尉,今知鄭廣文”;卷二十六《答徐昌穀》云:“揚雄總畏才難敵,王翰還要晩共鄰”;《和少傅陳留公夏日野莊卧病之作》第一首云:“艱危周勃安劉後,慷慨温公入洛年”,不能備舉。蓋前七子時,立法尚不苛細也。參觀第六百五十九則論《康德涵集》、七百六則論《何大復集》。

〇卷五《幽懷》云:“文章經緯業,制作貴有程。(中略)揚雄强模擬,何啻蒼蠅聲”一;“昌黎文章伯,後代罕儔匹。李杜雖云雄,氣格差甲乙。奈何賦長篇,退讓如自失。(中略)乃知作者苦,窮探極幽密。譬對百戰塲,動靜慎師律。(中略)多畏乃勝人,名家有深術”二。按此二首皆於七子有微詞,譏其輕心易念,高談模擬也。卷十五《重刻劉蘆泉集序》云:“夫國朝之文,本取醇厚為體,其敝也樸。弘治間,諸君飾以文藻盛矣,所貴混沌猶存可也。然華不已,則實日傷;雕不已,則本日削。不幾於日鑿一竅已乎”;《文端序》云:“文始於六經,正學也。其大壞,乃有六朝綺麗之體,衰宋瑣弱之習。比見楚學諸生為文,率務奧奇,而不知適入於壞。嘗教之讀西漢書矣,懼其學之無本,信之不篤也。至荊學,乃命教授楊奇取《易傳》、《尚書》、《禮記》各數篇,以為準的,次四書長篇,始及於西漢,其究至程、朱諸先生文而止。(中略)若夫《文選》、《文苑》諸書,正詞人中雕蟲之小技,吾方悔其少習”;《啟介谿公》云:“辱示《賀二相新第》詩,語格精嚴,正燕許的派,海內風雅當為一變。若諸硬語粗氣,附杜門牆者,烏可云被金石哉”;《寄後渠》略謂:“屈、莊、荀、賈、太史公皆文詞明直,意味深永。其後韓愈氏獨得其宗,當觀其《原道》諸作為的。若《進學解》諸文,必其少作,未可論,歐、王、蘇所見甚確。詩則謝靈運倡為刻晝,鑿死混沌,即它日西崑之義山”;卷三十《會心編序》云:“由今之詞,道古之道,雖聖哲不易也。(中略)涂子名相,字夢卜遂以所讀韓、柳氏以下文若干首,請刻為編。(中略)余因題曰《會心編》”;卷三十二《贈別王道思序》云:“余稱其試文,乃蹙然曰:‘公罔某耶?某初學文,好擬古,最先六經語,已而學左氏,又之遷、固。試文則是物也,殆揚雄所謂雕蟲技乎?近乃愛昌黎,為文日見其難及,不知昔者何視之易也?’璘驚曰:‘有是哉!今英賢並易昌黎文,而淺晦庵於道’”;卷三十七《啟敬所蔣少宰書》云:“唐宋以來,韓愈、柳宗元、歐陽修、蘇軾之屬,(中略)各發其文章,斐然成家。”其他稱引昌黎者,如卷四《晩庭納凉作五平詩呈涇川公》、卷三十八《復陳魯南》、《與葛惟源》皆可參印。世人每據其《與陳鶴論詩》卷三十八,以為論詩祈向略同李、何、昌穀,尚未知其全也。

〇華玉詩之稍不落窠臼者:卷十《出靖州》云:“池心濺墨生科斗,花血流紅綻杜鵑”;卷十七《明妃怨》云:“掩抑哀弦别上都,玉顔那遣嫁匈奴。人生敵面猶相忽,何况君王隔畫圖”一(於歐公《明妃曲》所謂“耳目所及尚如此,萬里安能制夷狄”別出新意)(卷二十《昭君寫真圖引》亦云:“可憐睇盼隔重霄,竟使畫圖欺白日”);《武皇南巡舊京歌》云:“青龍山北接飛猱,白鷺洲東射海鰲。不為芳春浪行幸,寢園聊待薦含桃”八;《擬宮怨》云:“翠靨金蟬入帝家,擬將新寵屬鉛華。君王自信圖中貌,靜女虛迎夢裏車。帳殿秋陰生角枕,屧廊空響應琵琶。含情獨倚朱闌暮,滿院微風動落花”三;“人意已疏言更淺,莫將詞賦倚相如”六;卷二十九《苦熱絕句》云:“西照人家晝掩門,船窗渾是暑風屯。清川沸作湯池熱,凉樾蒸為火樹繁”八。

〇東橋誦說宋儒,好為道學家語,至欲鄙棄文詞。觀卷十《舂陵懷古》第一首、卷十三《與後渠書》、《寄王道思》、《沅州修書院成告薛文清文》、《與呂涇野》、《答浚川公》、卷三十八《與葛惟源》、《與王汝重》可見。至卷四十《近言》十三篇,尤首標《尊道》,以詞人而究以心性,在交游中與薛君采、鄭善夫相近。卷三十七《復許函谷通政》云:“孔、孟所引詩書之言,亦多斷章取義,不拘拘於章句,蓋義理乃其精微,文詞特糟粕耳。至宋儒始守師說、泥章旨而立主意,雖於文字之際實有所發明,卒使六經之旨拘牽執滯,而無曲暢旁通之趣,實訓詁之學為之害也”云云,又是陽明並世人語氣。

〇卷三十八《與陳鶴論詩》謂論詩言六朝“靡弱”、初唐“變體未純”,雖常談而實確論,因怪鶴自作詩間出“六朝、唐初之語”,與大復之稱初唐者異趣。《四庫提要》謂其“近驂信陽之乘”,未為的論。東橋推空同高於大復,觀《四友齋叢說》卷二十六可知。《華玉集》卷二十九《寄李獻吉》第二首云:“太史論文戰國同,杜陵詩體次王風。即看今代詞林伯,未覺前賢采筆雄。”大復、昌穀皆未能得此於渠也。又《四友齋叢說》卷二十六記東橋曰:“空同言:‘詩至子美,如至圓不能加規,至方不能加矩矣。’此空同之過言也。夫規矩,方圓之至,故匠者皆用之,杜亦在規矩中耳。若說必要學杜,則是學某匠。何得就以子美為規矩也?”按《嬾真子》卷二記張奉議從聖謂退之《送窮》非擬《逐貧》:“規矩,方圓之至也,若與規矩合,則方圓自然同也。”二節可合觀。然東橋所述空同之言,當是其一時興到語。《空同子集》卷六十二《駁何氏論文書》有云:“古之工,如倕如班,堂非不殊,戶非同也,至其為方也、圓也,弗能舍規矩。何也?規矩者,法也。(中略)方圓之自也,即欲舍之,烏乎舍”云云,亦徵其臨文謹慎,與東橋見地無異也。

七四七

雜書:

Gabriele Rossetti: “Fuga ed asilo”: “Neve il dorso e fiamma il crin / riflettea dal mar vicin / il Vesèvo...” (L. Baldacci, Poeti minori dell’Ottocento, I, p. 42). Such a spectacle becomes a literary cliché: “Nur dies Hertz, est ist von Dauer, / Schwillt in Jugendlichstem Flor; / Unter Schnee und Nebelschauer / Rast ein Ätna die hervor” (Goethe, West-östlicher Divan, “Suleika Nameh”, Sämtliche Werke, Bd. II, S. 421); Père Bouhours, Les Entretiens d’Ariste et d’Eugène, 6me Entretien: “un des chevaliers surnommez, les Amans gelez en apparence, avoit [pour la devise] le Mont Etna couvert de neige & le glace, Dentro le fiamme, e fuor il ghiaccio” (Ed. Librairie Armand Colin, 1962, p. 227); cf. Heine compairing Victor Hugo’s insincere lyricism to the device in the legends, “incendescent en surface, glacé en dedans.” “But Adeline was not indifferent: for / (Now for a commonplace!) beneath the snow, / As a volcano holds the lava more / Within — et caetera. Shall I go on? — No! / I hate to hunt down a tired metaphor, / So let the often-used volcano go” (Byron, Don Juan, XIII. 36; Variorum Edition by T.G. Steffan & W.W. Pratt, III, p. 374); “gli piaceva — diceva egli [Croce] stesso — d’essere come il Vesuvio, che sovente, d’inverno, ha la neve fuori e il fuoco dentro” (F. Nicolini, Croce, p. 87); “Snow can lie on volcanoes; & geysers boil among icefields” (F.L. Lucas, Ibsen & Strindberg, p. 26 a propos of Norwegian reticence).

Two prophetic novels: Sydney Fowler Wright’s The War of 1938 (1936), which “foretold the fate that would befall the Czech people in 1938 with such uncanny accuracy that the story often reads like a report after the event” (Wm. K. Pfeiler, German Literature in Exile, p. 125); Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz’sInsatiability (1932), whose forecast of the state of affairs in eastern Europe under Soviet domination “is being fulfilled in the minutest detail” (C. Milosz, The Captive Mind, “Mercury Books”, p. 5).

Fr. Vischer’s Auch Einer, eine Reisebekanntschaft has enriched the German language with the phrase “die Tücke des Objekts” (cf. G. Büchmann, Geflügelte Worte, Volks-Ausgabe von B. Krieger, 1926, S. 213). As A.E. says in the novel: “Von Tagesanbruch bis in die späte Nacht, solang irgendein Mensch um den Weg ist, denkt das Objekt auf Unarten, auf Tücke” (Auch Einer, Leipsig: Insel Verlag, S. 27; cf. S. 21: “solche Tücke des Objekts zu vermeiden”; S. 26: “die allgemeine Tendenzionität die Animosität des Objekts”). Cf. 第七六七則 on Ch. Morgenstern’s “zwei elementarphansien.” W. Kayser considers Vischer’s formula a contribution to the repertory of the grotesque & traces adumbrations of the idea back to Hoffmann (Das Groteske, S. 119 ff.; cf. Hoffmann’s Der goldne Topf, see PMLA, March 1960, p. 93). “Die Tücke des Objekts” is, however, quite a common experience, & I can give instances in my own daily life of the pranks of buttons, typewriters, watches, books, key, etc. etc. Cf. Antoine Furetière, Le Roman Bourgeois: “... mais en se levant elle [Javotte] laissa tomber un peloton de fil et ses ciseaux, qui estoient sur sa juppe. Nicodème se jette aussitost avec précipitation à ses pieds pour les relever, Javotte se baisse de sou costé pour le prévenir; & se relevant tous deux en mesme temps, leurs deux fronts se heurtent avec telle violence, qu’ils se firent chacun une bosse. Nicodème, au desespoir de ce malheur, voulut se retirer promptement; mais il ne pris pas garde à un buffet boiteux qui estoit derrière luy, qu’il choqua si rudement qu’il en fit tomber une belle porcelaine... Il fait mille excuses, et en veut ramasser les morceaux pour en renvoyer une pareille. Mais en marchant brusquement avec des souliers neufs sur un plancher bien frotté,... le pied luy glissa, & comme, en ces occasions, on tasche à se retenir à ce qu’on trouve, il se prit aux houppes des cordons qui tenoient le miroir attaché; or le poids de son corps les ayant rompus, Nicodème & le miroir tomberent en mesme temps... Nicodème, tout honteux gagne la porte de la salle; mais, estant en colère, il l’ouvrit avec tant de violence, qu’elle alla donner contre un theorbe qu’un voisin avoit laissé contre la muraille, qui fut entièrement brisé”(“Édition Porteret”, p. 67-8). Émile Zola on his “canne perdue et puis retrouvée”: “En vérité les objets se cachent par fois, pour nous éprouver” (Pages d’Exil, publiées et annotées par Colin Burns, 1964, p. 50); Swinburne to Gosse: “When a printer presumes to forget that he is a machine, & has as much right to think for himself as an inkstand, he always does realise the records of the devil in a joint-stool — malevolent furniture — chairs & tables under diabolical possession — preserved in such chronicles as ‘Satan s Invisible World Displayed’ & ‘Pandemonium or the Devil’s Cloister’” (Cecil Y. Lang , The Swinburne Letters, VI, p. 64); “In his [Francis Thompson’s] extremity, the whole world seemed to him to be his enemy. Whenan umbrella fell against him in the railway carriage, he said, seriously, ‘I am the target of all disasters’” (J.C. Reid, Francis Thompson, p. 202); Santayana to H.W. Abbott,: “Let us remember that the joke of things is one at our expense. It is very funny, but it is exceedingly unpleasant” (Letters, ed. Daniel Cory, p. 15); Jean Dutourd, Au bon beurre, p. 151: “On n’avait plus affaires à de bons et loyaux objets, mais à de malicieuses matières qui s’ingéniaient à vous duper. Les lames de resoir ne coupaient pas, le savon était un pierre ou du sable, le dentifrice du plâtre, le café de l’orge, la cuir du papier, la toile de la fibrede bois. On était entouré d’apparences.” The farcical scene in Le Roman bourgeois resembles strongly the contretemps of a button on A.E.’s coat in Auch Einer (“Wer sollte zum Beispiel einem simplen Knopf seine Verruchtheit ansehen?” usw. in S. 18-9). For the accident of the “zuerst mit Butter, dann mit Honig ebenso korrekt gestrichenes, als korrekt geschnittenes Brot” which “war — ‘natürlich’ — auf die gestrichene Seite gefallen” (S. 28), cf. the Jewish saying “Butterbrot fällt ufs Ponim” (Büchmann, Geflügelte Worte, Volks-Ausgabe von B. Krieger, 1926, S. 194) & James Payn’s lines (The Oxford Dict. of Quotations, 2nd ed., p. 376). In Hardy’s novel, such pranks have catastrophic tragic consequences e.g. Tess’s letter goes beneath the carpet behind Angel’s door. Cf. “gremlin” & “jimp” in popular language. Cf. E.M. Foster, Aspects of the Novel, p. 164: “...the obstinacy of inanimate objects, like Dr Slop’s bag [in Tristram Shandy], is most suspicious.” On the other hand, Hugo in “Les Pauvres Gens” (La Légende des Siècles, LII) says: “La porte, cette fois, comme si, par instants, / Les objets étaient pris d’une pitié suprême, / Morne, tourna dans l’ombre et s’ouvrit d’elle-même” — only to reveal the corps of a poor woman, “Le spectre échevelé de la misère morte” (Oeuvres Poetiques Complètes, Montréal: Éd. B. Valiquette, p. 604)! Cf. Rupert Hart-Davis, Hugh Walpole, “The Harvest Book”, p. 110: “He went to the Chelsea Arts Ball hand in hand with Mr Pooter: ‘Saw everyone — great fun, only my trousers split’”; p. 158: “And here, to add to the fun, MrPooter once more took a hand.”【“Like the convivial Porson, when he could not light his bedroom candle with an extinguisher, you must ‘damn the nature of things’” (Max Beerbohm, Works & More, “Actors”). Cf. Paul Jenning’s amusing skit “Report on Resistentialism” (D. Macdonald, Parodies, pp. 394 ff., “Les choses sont contre nous” as “the basic concept”).】【E.A. Poe: “The Angel of the Odd” (Poems & Miscellanies, Oxford, p. 519): “who presided over the contretemps of mankind, & whose business it was to bring about the odd accidents which are continually astonishing the skeptic.”】【De Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, “Everyman’s”, pp. 92-3, the comic scene of bringing his trunk downstairs when he escaped from the school.】【During a grand dinner at Chesterfield House, Philip Stanhope stuffed the corner of the tablecloth in his waistcoat in mistake for his napkin, & walked across the floor pulling down after him the whole service. Amusing instances in George & Weedon Grossmith, The Diary of a Nobody, Arrowsmith, pp. 40 (tie), 53 (cabbage), 58 (boots), 142 (curds), 144 (mat), 166 (gloves), 175 (chest of drawers).】

Gabriele Rossetti: “Dimora in Inghilterra”: “O Brittannia venturosa, / di Nettun possente sposa, / trista nebbia, è ver, t’ingombra, / ma quest’ombra — orror non ha: / sii di luce ancor più priva, / pur ch’io viva — in libertà!” (Poeti minori dell’Ottocento, a cura di L. Baldacci, I, p. 48). Cf. Lucilio in Nievo’s La Confessioni d’un Italiano, cap. 20: “Gli è vero che il sole di Londra non è quello di Venezia; ma la melanconia delle sue tinte s’accorda perfettamente alle pupille lagrimose dell’esule” (Opere, a cura di S. Romagnolo, p. 748).

F. Schlegel: “Poesie kann nur durch Poesie kritisiert werden. Ein Kunsturteil, welches nicht selbst ein Kunstwerk ist, entweder im Stoff, als Darstellung des notwendigen Eindrucks in seinem Werden, oder durch eine schöne Form, und einen im Geist der alten römischen Satire liberalen Ton, hat gar kein Bürgerrecht im Reiche der Kunst” (Jakob Minor, Fr. Schlegel: Seine prosaischen Jugendschriften, II, S. 200). This leads to the dangerous practice of so-called “creative criticism.” In a witty note to his dismissive verdict on the theory of criticism as “artifex additus artifici” (La Poesia, 5a ed., p. 127), Croce says: “Poiché a quest’obbligo che rammentavo al critico di pensare, e al congiunto divieto di mettervi a gareggiare col poeta nel canto, un critico estetizzante rispose che io non intendevo, perché non lo conoscevo per esperienza, il sacro furore del critico invasato, replicai ricordando scherzosamente che nella sale di concerto tedesco c’è la scritta: ‘Das Mitsingen ist verboten’” (Ib., pp. 317-8). Cf. Berenson’s crack: “I falsificatori sono in effetto dei critici che non si sono andati altre, fino alla finta creazione” (U. Morra, Colloqui con Berenson, quoted in T.L.S., March 5, 1964, p. 187); Chekhov’s admonition to Gorky is also in point here: “You lack restraint. You are like a spectator at a play who expresses his enthusiasm so unrestrainedly that he cannot hear what the actors are saying & does not let others hear it. This lack of restraint is particularly felt in the descriptive passages with which you interrupt your dialogue” (David Magarshack, Chekhov, p. 333). Mario Fubini’s judicious & sensitive amendment of Croce’s view is worth quoting: “Eppure sentiamo che per un altro verso il Mitsingen è inevitabile e necessario, e che in ogni critico deve pur cantare dentro, anche quando vien svolgendo I suoi ragionamenti, la voce del poeta e a quella voce egli di continuo deve porgere ascolto per non lasciarsi portare a conclusioni troppo astratte o poco pertinente. Essa canta, per usare le parole del Pascoli, ‘come non sanno / Cantare che i sogni del cuore / Che cantano forte e non fanno / Rumore’: vero è che coloro a cui era rivolto il monito del Croce tendono per lo più a cantare forte e a fare rumore, un rumore tale che finisce per sopraffare la voce del poeta!” (Critica e poesia, p. 85).

Swinburne to W.M. Rossetti: “”So be it — if you like to contribute to ‘The Bog-house Miscellany — well designed to ease the body, & improve the mind’” (The Swinburne Letters, V, p. 97). In a footnote the editor refers to the pamphlet Serious & Cleanly Meditations upon a House of Office Dedirated to the Goldfinders of Great Britain by Cato. To which is added The Bog-House, a Poem in Imitation of Milton (1723): “Such Places as these, / Were made for the Ease / Of every Fellow in common; / But, to Poets who write / On the Wall as they sh—tes, / ’Tis a Pleasure far greater than Woman; / For he’s eased in his Body, & pleased in his Mind, / Who leaves both a T—d & some Verses behind.” Gianni Magliano Has culled some examples of latrinal verse: “Perché questo liceo de me nulla perda, / quel che mi diede in scienza io glielo rendo in merda” (I Muri parlano, p. 29); “Portatevi la carta voi ch’entrate”, “E quivi, del mio cul, feci e trombetta” (p. 30); “Non dico che del buco prender si debba il centro, / Ma figli di p—fatela almeno dentro” (cf. E. Partridge, Dict. of Catch Phrases, p. 199: “Stand closer — it is shorter than you think!”; “Ladies, please remainseated during the whole performance”; The Penguin Book of Modern Quotations, p. 6: “We aim to please. You aim too, please” — inscription in gentlemen’s lavatory of N.Y. restaurant) (p. 33); “La scienza del cuoco / Finisce in questo loco” (p. 34), etc. Cf. 第八十六則 on Martial, XII. lxi (“The Loeb Classical Library”, II, p. 362).

Walter Muschg, Die Zerstörung der deutschen Literatur, 3te erweiterte Aufl. 1958, S. 31: “Die andere Hälfte der entzweigerissenen deutschen Literatur, die in Deutschland zurückblieb [during the Third Reich], bestand nicht nur aus nichtswürdigen Feiglingen und Dilettanten. Hinter dem Aufstand des Pöbels ereignete sich dort das andere, das die Ausgewanderten nicht sehen konnten und in Deutschland niemand sehen durfte: das Martyrium derjenigen, die sich nicht entschließen konnten, ihr Land zu verlassen, und in dem neuen Reich, das sie verachteten, zu leben versuchten.” Cf. Milosz, The Captive Mind, ch. 3 (tr. by Jane Zielonko, “Mercury Books”, p. 79): “Obviously, people caught up in this daily struggle are rather contemptuous of their compatriot political émigrés. A surgeon cannot consider a butcher his equal in his dexterity; just so a Pole, Czech, or Hungarian practised in the art of dissimulation smiles when he learns that someone in the emigration has called him a traitor at the very moment when this traitor is engaged in a match of philosophical chess...”

“葛惟源”原作“葛維源”。

“烏乎”原作“惡乎”。

“Sydney”原作“Sidney”,“The War of 1938”原作“The War of 1936”。

“The spite of the inanimate object.”

“goldne”原作“goldene”。

“prit”原作“pris”。

“I never had a piece of toast particularly long and wide, But fell upon the sanded floor, And always on the buttered side.”

O.E.D.: “Jimp [Scottish obsolete]: ... 2. A trick, prank [1572].”

“Things are against us.”

“Dimora”原作“Stanza”。

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